STATERA | LIBRARY

LATEST RESEARCH ON CUTTING-EDGE HEALTH.

SAUNA

Physical Fitness & Athletic Performance


  • Repeat sauna use for 3 weeks post-workout increased the time that it took for distance runners to run until exhaustion by 32%. An increase of plasma volume and red blood cells was also observed (Scoon et al., 2007)
  • Heat acclimation (from repetitive sauna use) increases blood flow to the heart, reduces cardiovascular strain, and lowers heart rate to show enhanced endurance in athletes (Garrett et al., 2012; Heat Acclimation Responses of an Ultra-Endurance Running Group Preparing for Hot Desert-Based Competition: European Journal of Sport Science: Vol 14, No Sup1, n.d.)
  • Heat acclimation has been shown to reduce muscle glycogen use by 40-50% compared to before heat acclimation, presumably due to increased blood flow to the muscles (King et al., 1985; Kirwan et al., 1987)
  • Heat activation may reduce the amount of muscle breakdown that occurs during disuse by increasing heat shock proteins, reducing oxidative damage, promoting release of growth hormone, and improving insulin sensitivity (Hannuksela & Ellahham, 2001; Naito et al., 2000; J. T. Selsby et al., 2007)
  • Muscle mass is better maintained or increased with use of sauna (J. T. Selsby et al., 2007; Joshua T. Selsby & Dodd, 2005)




Cardiovascular Health


  • “Participants’ blood pressure and heart rate drop below baseline levels measured pre-sauna or -exercise” (Ketelhut & Ketelhut, 2019; Lee et al., 2017)
  • Moderate sauna users (2-3 times per week) are 27% less likely to die from cardiovascular-related causes, and frequent users (4-7 times per week) are 50% less likely to die from cardiovascular-related causes (T. Laukkanen et al., 2015)
  • In a randomized controlled trial, patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) who received only two weeks of sauna therapy demonstrated improved endurance, endothelial function, heart size, and disease status compared to those who received standard medical care (Kihara et al., 2002)
  • Individuals with peripheral artery disease demonstrated improvements in pain levels, walking endurance, and lower extremity blood flow (Shinsato et al., 2010; Chuwa Tei et al., 2007)
  • Sauna has been shown to benefit dyslipidemia by reducing LDL and total cholesterol (Gryka et al., 2014)
  • Consistent use of sauna significantly reduces risk of hypertension (Zaccardi et al., 2017)
  • Both single-session and long-term sauna use improved ventricular function in men with CHF and may have therapeutic value for treating late-stage cardiovascular disease (C. Tei & Tanaka, 1996; Tei Chuwa et al., 1995)
  • “Studies document the effectiveness of sauna therapy for persons with hypertension, congestive heart failure, and for post-myocardial infarction care. Some individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic fatigue, chronic pain, or addictions also find benefit. Existing evidence supports the use of saunas as a component of depuration (purification or cleansing) protocols for environmentally-induced illness,” (Crinnion, 2011)




Inflammation


  • Lower levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a blood protein that is a marker of inflammation, have been linked to greater frequency of sauna (J. A. Laukkanen & Laukkanen, 2018)
  • Interleukin-10, a potent anti-inflammatory protein, is increased by use of sauna (Żychowska et al., 2018)




Cognitive & Mental Health


  • Heat exposure increases the production of BDNF to promote neurogenesis – the growth of new neurons in the brain (Kojima et al., 2018; Maniam & Morris, 2010). BDNF is also produced in exercising muscle tissue, where it plays a role in muscle repair and the growth of new muscle cells (Pedersen, 2013)
  • Findings from a large study in Finland showed that men who used sauna 4-7 times per week had a 65% reduced risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease, compared to men who used the sauna only one time per week (T. Laukkanen et al., 2015)
  • Sauna reduces symptoms of depression – such as improved appetite and reduced body aches and anxiety (Janssen et al., 2016; Masuda et al., 2005)
  • Evidence suggests that beta-endorphins (released during sauna and responsible for the “feel-good” response after exercise) suppress the release of pain-promoting substances in the brain (Jezová et al., 1985; Kukkonen-Harjula & Kauppinen, 1988; Vescovi et al., 1992)
  • Research has shown that when young men stayed in a sauna that was heated to 176°F, their norepinephrine levels increased by 310% and their prolactin levels increased by 900% (Kukkonen-Harjula et al., 1989; Laatikainen et al., 1988). Norepinephrine enhances focus and attention, while prolactin promotes myelin growth, which makes the brain function faster, a critical feature in repairing nerve cell damage.




Hormonal & Metabolic Function


  • Sauna use is linked with increases in growth hormone (Hannuksela & Ellahham, 2001; Kukkonen-Harjula et al., 1989; Leppäluoto et al., 1986). Sauna use and exercise can synergize to significantly elevate growth hormone when used together (Ftaiti et al., 2008)
  • Repeated treatment with far-infrared sauna has been shown to significantly lower fasting blood glucose levels (Imamura et al., 2001)
  • Insulin resistance is improved with sauna treatment (Full Article: Whole Body Hyperthermia Improves Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Mice, n.d.)




Detoxification


  • Heat shock proteins, stimulated by heat stress, reduce degradation of the most powerful antioxidant in the body – glutathione (Naito et al., 2000; J. T. Selsby et al., 2007)
  • Sauna bathing facilitates the excretion of certain toxins by means of sweat production (Podstawski et al., 2014)
  • Heavy Metals are mostly excreted through sweat, and to a lesser degree, urine (Genuis, Birkholz, et al., 2011)
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) is excreted via sweat and, to a lesser degree, urine (Genuis, Beesoon, et al., 2011)
  • Some, but not all, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are excreted in sweat (Genuis et al., 2013)
  • Some phthalates, but not all, are readily excreted through sweat (Genuis, Birkholz, et al., 2011)




References


  1. Crinnion, W. J. (2011). Sauna as a valuable clinical tool for cardiovascular, autoimmune, toxicant- induced and other chronic health problems. Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic, 16(3), 215–225.

  2. Ftaiti, F., Jemni, M., Kacem, A., Zaouali, M. A., Tabka, Z., Zbidi, A., & Grélot, L. (2008). Effect of hyperthermia and physical activity on circulating growth hormone. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(5), 880–887. https://doi.org/10.1139/H08-073

  3. Full article: Whole body hyperthermia improves obesity-induced insulin resistance in diabetic mice. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02656730601176824

  4. Garrett, A. T., Creasy, R., Rehrer, N. J., Patterson, M. J., & Cotter, J. D. (2012). Effectiveness of short-term heat acclimation for highly trained athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112(5), 1827–1837. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2153-3

  5. Genuis, S. J., Beesoon, S., & Birkholz, D. (2013, September 3). Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study [Research Article]. ISRN Toxicology; Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/483832

  6. Genuis, S. J., Beesoon, S., Birkholz, D., & Lobo, R. A. (2011, December 27). Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study [Clinical Study]. Journal of Environmental and Public Health; Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/185731

  7. Genuis, S. J., Birkholz, D., Rodushkin, I., & Beesoon, S. (2011). Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 61(2), 344–357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-010-9611-5

  8. Gryka, D., Pilch, W., Szarek, M., Szygula, Z., & Tota, Ł. (2014). The effect of sauna bathing on lipid profile in young, physically active, male subjects. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 27(4), 608–618. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13382-014-0281-9

  9. Hannuksela, M. L., & Ellahham, S. (2001). Benefits and risks of sauna bathing. The American Journal of Medicine, 110(2), 118–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9343(00)00671-9

  10. Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition: European Journal of Sport Science: Vol 14, No sup1. (n.d.). Retrieved July 13, 2020, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2012.660506

  11. Imamura, M., Biro, S., Kihara, T., Yoshifuku, S., Takasaki, K., Otsuji, Y., Minagoe, S., Toyama, Y., & Tei, C. (2001). Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 38(4), 1083–1088. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01467-X

  12. Janssen, C. W., Lowry, C. A., Mehl, M. R., Allen, J. J. B., Kelly, K. L., Gartner, D. E., Medrano, A., Begay, T. K., Rentscher, K., White, J. J., Fridman, A., Roberts, L. J., Robbins, M. L., Hanusch, K., Cole, S. P., & Raison, C. L. (2016). Whole-Body Hyperthermia for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 73(8), 789–795. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.1031

  13. Jezová, D., Vigas, M., Tatár, P., Jurcovicová, J., & Palát, M. (1985). Rise in plasma beta-endorphin and ACTH in response to hyperthermia in sauna. Hormone and Metabolic Research = Hormon- Und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones Et Metabolisme, 17(12), 693–694. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1013648

  14. Ketelhut, S., & Ketelhut, R. G. (2019). The blood pressure and heart rate during sauna bath correspond to cardiac responses during submaximal dynamic exercise. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 44, 218–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.05.002

  15. Kihara, T., Biro, S., Imamura, M., Yoshifuku, S., Takasaki, K., Ikeda, Y., Otuji, Y., Minagoe, S., Toyama, Y., & Tei, C. (2002). Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39(5), 754–759. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01824-1

  16. King, D. S., Costill, D. L., Fink, W. J., Hargreaves, M., & Fielding, R. A. (1985). Muscle metabolism during exercise in the heat in unacclimatized and acclimatized humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 59(5), 1350–1354. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1985.59.5.1350

  17. Kirwan, J. P., Costill, D. L., Kuipers, H., Burrell, M. J., Fink, W. J., Kovaleski, J. E., & Fielding, R. A. (1987). Substrate utilization in leg muscle of men after heat acclimation. Journal of Applied Physiology, 63(1), 31–35. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1987.63.1.31

  18. Kojima, D., Nakamura, T., Banno, M., Umemoto, Y., Kinoshita, T., Ishida, Y., & Tajima, F. (2018). Head-out immersion in hot water increases serum BDNF in healthy males. International Journal of Hyperthermia, 34(6), 834–839. https://doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2017.1394502

  19. Kukkonen-Harjula, K., & Kauppinen, K. (1988). How the sauna affects the endocrine system. Annals of Clinical Research, 20(4), 262–266.

  20. Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Oja, P., Laustiola, K., Vuori, I., Jolkkonen, J., Siitonen, S., & Vapaatalo, H. (1989). Haemodynamic and hormonal responses to heat exposure in a Finnish sauna bath. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 58(5), 543–550. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02330710

  21. Laatikainen, T., Salminen, K., Kohvakka, A., & Pettersson, J. (1988). Response of plasma endorphins, prolactin and catecholamines in women to intense heat in a sauna. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 57(1), 98–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00691246

  22. Laukkanen, J. A., & Laukkanen, T. (2018). Sauna bathing and systemic inflammation. European Journal of Epidemiology, 33(3), 351–353. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-017-0335-y

  23. Laukkanen, T., Khan, H., Zaccardi, F., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2015). Association Between Sauna Bathing and Fatal Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Events. JAMA Internal Medicine, 175(4), 542. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.8187

  24. Lee, E., Laukkanen, T., Kunutsor, S. K., Khan, H., Willeit, P., Zaccardi, F., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2017). Sauna exposure leads to improved arterial compliance: Findings from a non-randomised experimental study: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487317737629

  25. Leppäluoto, J., Huttunen, P., Hirvonen, J., Väänänen, A., Tuominen, M., & Vuori, J. (1986). Endocrine effects of repeated sauna bathing. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 128(3), 467–470. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1986.tb08000.x

  26. Maniam, J., & Morris, M. J. (2010). Voluntary exercise and palatable high-fat diet both improve behavioural profile and stress responses in male rats exposed to early life stress: Role of hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(10), 1553–1564. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.05.012

  27. Masuda, A., Nakazato, M., Kihara, T., Minagoe, S., & Tei, C. (2005). Repeated Thermal Therapy Diminishes Appetite Loss and Subjective Complaints in Mildly Depressed Patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67(4), 643–647. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.psy.0000171812.67767.8f

  28. Naito, H., Powers, S. K., Demirel, H. A., Sugiura, T., Dodd, S. L., & Aoki, J. (2000). Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy in hindlimb-unweighted rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 88(1), 359–363. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.88.1.359

  29. Pedersen, B. K. (2013). Muscle as a Secretory Organ. In Comprehensive Physiology (pp. 1337–1362). American Cancer Society. https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.c120033

  30. Podstawski, R., Boraczyński, T., Boraczyński, M., Choszcz, D., Mańkowski, S., & Markowski, P. (2014, December 31). Sauna-Induced Body Mass Loss in Young Sedentary Women and Men [Research Article]. The Scientific World Journal; Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/307421

  31. Scoon, G. S. M., Hopkins, W. G., Mayhew, S., & Cotter, J. D. (2007). Effect of post-exercise sauna bathing on the endurance performance of competitive male runners. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10(4), 259–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2006.06.009

  32. Selsby, J. T., Rother, S., Tsuda, S., Pracash, O., Quindry, J., & Dodd, S. L. (2007). Intermittent hyperthermia enhances skeletal muscle regrowth and attenuates oxidative damage following reloading. Journal of Applied Physiology, 102(4), 1702–1707. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00722.2006

  33. Selsby, Joshua T., & Dodd, S. L. (2005). Heat treatment reduces oxidative stress and protects muscle mass during immobilization. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 289(1), R134–R139. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00497.2004

  34. Shinsato, T., Miyata, M., Kubozono, T., Ikeda, Y., Fujita, S., Kuwahata, S., Akasaki, Y., Hamasaki, S., Fujiwara, H., & Tei, C. (2010). Waon therapy mobilizes CD34+ cells and improves peripheral arterial disease. Journal of Cardiology, 56(3), 361–366. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jjcc.2010.08.004

  35. Tei, C., & Tanaka, N. (1996). Thermal vasodilation as a treatment of congestive heart failure: A novel approach. Journal of Cardiology, 27(1), 29–30.

  36. Tei Chuwa, Horikiri Yutaka, Park Jong-Chun, Jeong Jin-Won, Chang Kyoung-Sig, Toyama Yoshihumi, & Tanaka Nobuyuki. (1995). Acute Hemodynamic Improvement by Thermal Vasodilation in Congestive Heart Failure. Circulation, 91(10), 2582–2590. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.91.10.2582

  37. Tei, Chuwa, Shinsato, T., Miyata, M., Kihara, T., & Hamasaki, S. (2007). Waon Therapy Improves Peripheral Arterial Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 50(22), 2169–2171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2007.08.025

  38. Vescovi, P. P., Casti, A., Michelini, M., Maninetti, L., Pedrazzoni, M., & Passeri, M. (1992). Plasma ACTH, beta-endorphin, prolactin, growth hormone and luteinizing hormone levels after thermal stress, heat and cold. Stress Medicine, 8(3), 187–191. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2460080310

  39. Zaccardi, F., Laukkanen, T., Willeit, P., Kunutsor, S. K., Kauhanen, J., & Laukkanen, J. A. (2017). Sauna Bathing and Incident Hypertension: A Prospective Cohort Study. American Journal of Hypertension, 30(11), 1120–1125. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpx102

  40. Żychowska, M., Nowak-Zaleska, A., Chruściński, G., Zaleski, R., Mieszkowski, J., Niespodziński, B., Tymański, R., & Kochanowicz, A. (2018, February 28). Association of High Cardiovascular Fitness and the Rate of Adaptation to Heat Stress [Research Article]. BioMed Research International; Hindawi. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1685368





PHOTOBIOMODULATION

Pain & Inflammation


  • PBM has been shown to stimulate healing, relieve pain, and reduce inflammation. Also, it increases ATP levels, cell proliferation and migration, and protein synthesis (Hamblin, 2017)
  • PBM stimulates healing, protects tissue from dying, increases mitochondrial function, and improves blood flow and tissue oxygenation. PBM can also act to increase antioxidants and decrease inflammation. Furthermore, many studies in small animal models of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) have found positive effects in neurological function, learning and memory, and reduced inflammation and cell death, in the brain. There is evidence that PBM can help the brain to repair itself by stimulating neurogenesis, upregulating BDNF synthesis, and encouraging synaptogenesis. PBM has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow, tissue oxygenation and improve memory, mood and cognitive function. There have been reports of improvements in executive function, working memory, and improved sleep (Hamblin, 2018)
  • After patients underwent total hip replacements, PBM has been shown to have a greater reduction in pain and inflammatory markers than the placebo group (Langella et al., 2018)
  • A double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that low level laser therapy (another name for PBM) increases endurance for repeated elbow flexion when applied to the biceps muscle prior. It also resulted in decreased postexercise levels of blood lactate, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein (Leal Junior et al., 2010)
  • PBM has been shown to decrease pain (according to the visual analog scale and the McGill Pain Questionnaire) experienced by delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) (Douris et al., 2006)
  • When photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells, electron transport, blood flow, and diverse signaling pathways are activated. Stem cells can be activated, allowing increased tissue repair and healing. In dermatology, PBM has beneficial effects on wrinkles, acne scars, hypertrophic scars, and healing of burns. In pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo, PBM can increase pigmentation by stimulating melanocyte proliferation and reduce depigmentation by inhibiting autoimmunity. Inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and acne can also be managed (Avci et al., 2013)
  • PBM can increase peak force produced by skeletal muscle (de Almeida et al., 2012)
  • Athletes, people with injured muscles, and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy may all benefit from PBM (Ferraresi et al., 2012)
  • In patients with knee osteoarthritis, PBM was able to reduce pain and increase function in the knee joint (Al Rashoud et al., 2014)
  • LED light therapy (like the Joovv) promotes a decrease in inflammatory cells, increase in fibroblast proliferation, stimulation of angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation and increased synthesis of collagen. In other words, it promotes tissue repair and wound healing (Chaves et al., 2014)
  • PBM tends to accelerate the resolution of arthritis by signaling specific immune cells (Dos Anjos et al., 2019)




References


  1. Al Rashoud, A. S., Abboud, R. J., Wang, W., & Wigderowitz, C. (2014). Efficacy of low-level laser therapy applied at acupuncture points in knee osteoarthritis: A randomised double-blind comparative trial. Physiotherapy, 100(3), 242–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physio.2013.09.007

  2. Alsharnoubi, J., Shoukry, K. E.-S., Fawzy, M. W., & Mohamed, O. (2018). Evaluation of scars in children after treatment with low-level laser. Lasers in Medical Science, 33(9), 1991–1995. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-018-2572-z

  3. Antonialli, F. C., De Marchi, T., Tomazoni, S. S., Vanin, A. A., dos Santos Grandinetti, V., de Paiva, P. R. V., Pinto, H. D., Miranda, E. F., de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P., & Leal-Junior, E. C. P. (2014). Phototherapy in skeletal muscle performance and recovery after exercise: Effect of combination of super-pulsed laser and light-emitting diodes. Lasers in Medical Science, 29(6), 1967–1976. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1611-7

  4. Avci, P., Gupta, A., Sadasivam, M., Vecchio, D., Pam, Z., Pam, N., & Hamblin, M. R. (2013). Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: Stimulating, healing, restoring. Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 32(1), 41–52.

  5. Baek, W. Y., Byun, I. H., Yun, I. S., Kim, J. Y., Roh, T. S., Lew, D. H., & Kim, Y. S. (2017). The effect of light-emitting diode (590/830 nm)-based low-level laser therapy on posttraumatic edema of facial bone fracture patients. Journal of Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery: Official Publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery, 45(11), 1875–1877. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2017.08.027

  6. Baez, F., & Reilly, L. R. (2007). The use of light-emitting diode therapy in the treatment of photoaged skin. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 6(3), 189–194. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473-2165.2007.00329.x

  7. Ban Frangez, H., Frangez, I., Verdenik, I., Jansa, V., & Virant Klun, I. (2015). Photobiomodulation with light-emitting diodes improves sperm motility in men with asthenozoospermia. Lasers in Medical Science, 30(1), 235–240. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1653-x

  8. Barbosa, R., Marcolino, A., Souza, V., Bertolino, G., Fonseca, M., & Guirro, R. (2017). Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy and Strength Training Protocol on Hand Grip by Dynamometry. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, 8(3), 112–117. https://doi.org/10.15171/jlms.2017.20

  9. Barolet, D., Roberge, C. J., Auger, F. A., Boucher, A., & Germain, L. (2009). Regulation of skin collagen metabolism in vitro using a pulsed 660 nm LED light source: Clinical correlation with a single-blinded study. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 129(12), 2751–2759. https://doi.org/10.1038/jid.2009.186

  10. Baroni, B. M., Rodrigues, R., Freire, B. B., Franke, R. de A., Geremia, J. M., & Vaz, M. A. (2015). Effect of low-level laser therapy on muscle adaptation to knee extensor eccentric training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 115(3), 639–647. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-014-3055-y

  11. Bashardoust Tajali, S., Macdermid, J. C., Houghton, P., & Grewal, R. (2010). Effects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: A meta-analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 5, 1. https://doi.org/10.1186/1749-799X-5-1

  12. Bayat, M., Fridoni, M., Nejati, H., Mostafavinia, A., Salimi, M., Ghatrehsamani, M., Abdollahifar, M.-A., Najar, A., Bayat, S., & Rezaei, F. (2016). An evaluation of the effect of pulsed wave low-level laser therapy on the biomechanical properties of the vertebral body in two experimental osteoporosis rat models. Lasers in Medical Science, 31(2), 305–314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-015-1842-2

  13. Beirne, K., Rozanowska, M., & Votruba, M. (2016). Red Light Treatment in an Axotomy Model of Neurodegeneration. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 92(4), 624–631. https://doi.org/10.1111/php.12606

  14. Berman, M. H., Halper, J. P., Nichols, T. W., Jarrett, H., Lundy, A., & Huang, J. H. (2017). Photobiomodulation with Near Infrared Light Helmet in a Pilot, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial in Dementia Patients Testing Memory and Cognition. Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience, 8(1). https://doi.org/10.21767/2171-6625.1000176

  15. Biswas, N. M., Biswas, R., Biswas, N. M., & Mandal, L. H. (2013). Effect of continuous light on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in rats: Possible involvement of alpha 2u-globulin. Nepal Medical College Journal: NMCJ, 15(1), 62–64.

  16. Borges, L. S., Cerqueira, M. S., dos Santos Rocha, J. A., Conrado, L. A. L., Machado, M., Pereira, R., & Pinto Neto, O. (2014). Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise. Lasers in Medical Science, 29(3), 1139–1144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1486-z

  17. Brassolatti, P., de Andrade, A. L. M., Bossini, P. S., Orth, D. L., Duarte, F. O., Dos Anjos Souza, A. B., Parizotto, N. A., & de Freitas Anibal, F. (2018). Photobiomodulation on critical bone defects of rat calvaria: A systematic review. Lasers in Medical Science, 33(9), 1841–1848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-018-2653-z

  18. Briteño-Vázquez, M., Santillán-Díaz, G., González-Pérez, M., Gallego-Izquierdo, T., Pecos-Martín, D., Plaza-Manzano, G., & Romero-Franco, N. (2015). Low power laser stimulation of the bone consolidation in tibial fractures of rats: A radiologic and histopathological analysis. Lasers in Medical Science, 30(1), 333–338. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-014-1673-6

  19. Calaza, K. C., Kam, J. H., Hogg, C., & Jeffery, G. (2015). Mitochondrial decline precedes phenotype development in the complement factor H mouse model of retinal degeneration but can be corrected by near infrared light. Neurobiology of Aging, 36(10), 2869–2876. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2015.06.010

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  95. Salehpour, F., Farajdokht, F., Cassano, P., Sadigh-Eteghad, S., Erfani, M., Hamblin, M. R., Salimi, M. M., Karimi, P., Rasta, S. H., & Mahmoudi, J. (2019). Near-infrared photobiomodulation combined with coenzyme Q10 for depression in a mouse model of restraint stress: Reduction in oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis. Brain Research Bulletin, 144, 213–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2018.10.010

  96. Salehpour, F., Rasta, S. H., Mohaddes, G., Sadigh-Eteghad, S., & Salarirad, S. (2016). Therapeutic effects of 10-HzPulsed wave lasers in rat depression model: A comparison between near-infrared and red wavelengths. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 48(7), 695–705. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22542

  97. Salman Yazdi, R., Bakhshi, S., Jannat Alipoor, F., Akhoond, M. R., Borhani, S., Farrahi, F., Lotfi Panah, M., & Sadighi Gilani, M. A. (2014). Effect of 830-nm diode laser irradiation on human sperm motility. Lasers in Medical Science, 29(1), 97–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-013-1276-7

  98. Saltmarche, A. E., Naeser, M. A., Ho, K. F., Hamblin, M. R., & Lim, L. (2017). Significant Improvement in Cognition in Mild to Moderately Severe Dementia Cases Treated with Transcranial Plus Intranasal Photobiomodulation: Case Series Report. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 35(8), 432–441. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4227

  99. Sene-Fiorese, M., Duarte, F. O., de Aquino Junior, A. E., Campos, R. M. da S., Masquio, D. C. L., Tock, L., de Oliveira Duarte, A. C. G., Dâmaso, A. R., Parizotto, N. A., & Bagnato, V. S. (2015). The potential of phototherapy to reduce body fat, insulin resistance and “metabolic inflexibility” related to obesity in women undergoing weight loss treatment. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 47(8), 634–642. https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22395

  100. Sivapathasuntharam, C., Sivaprasad, S., Hogg, C., & Jeffery, G. (2017). Aging retinal function is improved by near infrared light (670 nm) that is associated with corrected mitochondrial decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 52, 66–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2017.01.001

  101. So, K.-F., Leung, M. C. P., & Cui, Q. (2014). Effects of low level laser treatment on the survival of axotomized retinal ganglion cells in adult Hamsters. Neural Regeneration Research, 9(21), 1863–1869. https://doi.org/10.4103/1673-5374.145337

  102. Stergioulas, A., Stergioula, M., Aarskog, R., Lopes-Martins, R. A. B., & Bjordal, J. M. (2008). Effects of low-level laser therapy and eccentric exercises in the treatment of recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinopathy. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 36(5), 881–887. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546507312165

  103. Szymanski, C. R., Chiha, W., Morellini, N., Cummins, N., Bartlett, C. A., O’Hare Doig, R. L., Savigni, D. L., Payne, S. C., Harvey, A. R., Dunlop, S. A., & Fitzgerald, M. (2013). Paranode Abnormalities and Oxidative Stress in Optic Nerve Vulnerable to Secondary Degeneration: Modulation by 670 nm Light Treatment. PloS One, 8(6), e66448. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066448

  104. Tschon, M., Incerti-Parenti, S., Cepollaro, S., Checchi, L., & Fini, M. (2015). Photobiomodulation with low-level diode laser promotes osteoblast migration in an in vitro micro wound model. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 20(7), 78002. https://doi.org/10.1117/1.JBO.20.7.078002

  105. Ushigome, N., Harada, T., Okuni, I., Ohshiro, T., Musya, Y., Mizutani, K., Maruyama, Y., Suguro, T., & Tsuchiya, K. (2008). Effects of Low Level Laser Therapy (lllt) on Spasticity Caused by Cerebral Vascular Accidents (cvas). Laser Therapy, 17(2), 95–99. https://doi.org/10.5978/islsm.17.95

  106. Vadnie, C. A., & McClung, C. A. (2017). Circadian Rhythm Disturbances in Mood Disorders: Insights into the Role of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus [Review Article]. Neural Plasticity. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1504507

  107. Vanin, A. A., Miranda, E. F., Machado, C. S. M., de Paiva, P. R. V., Albuquerque-Pontes, G. M., Casalechi, H. L., de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P., & Leal-Junior, E. C. P. (2016). What is the best moment to apply phototherapy when associated to a strength training program? A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial : Phototherapy in association to strength training. Lasers in Medical Science, 31(8), 1555–1564. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-016-2015-7

  108. Vladimirovich Moskvin, S., & Ivanovich Apolikhin, O. (2018). Effectiveness of low level laser therapy for treating male infertility. BioMedicine, 8(2), 7. https://doi.org/10.1051/bmdcn/2018080207

  109. Wunsch, A., & Matuschka, K. (2014). A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 32(2), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2013.3616

  110. Zane, C., Capezzera, R., Pedretti, A., Facchinetti, E., & Calzavara-Pinton, P. (2008). Non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of phototherapeutic effects of red light phototherapy of acne vulgaris. Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 24(5), 244–248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0781.2008.00368.x

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Recent Research


  • The ability of PBM to influence the microbiome (if proven to be applicable to humans) will allow an additional therapeutic route to target multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and Parkinson's disease, many of which have thus far eluded effective treatment approaches (Liebert et al., 2019)
  • Photobiomodulation and Antiviral Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Novel Approach in COVID-19 Management (Fekrazad, 2020)
  • Photobiomodulation may be considered a promising tool for the treatment of chronic pulmonary allergic inflammation observed in asthma (Rigonato-Oliveira et al., 2019)




Fitness, Performance & Recovery


  • One study found that utilizing PBM prior to exercise significantly increases the 1-rep max test for leg extension and leg press exercises when compared to PBM therapy post-exercise (Vanin et al., 2016)
  • Again, when comparing training with PBM to training without, it has been demonstrated that the PBM group had a 29% greater increase in the 1-rep max leg-press. The PBM group also showed an increase in muscle performance in the isokinetic dynamometry test, whereas training alone did not (Ferraresi et al., 2011)
  • And again, PBM increases the amount of maximum repetitions performed by the quadriceps femoris muscles (de Brito Vieira et al., 2014)
  • In conclusion of another study, they stated that PBM applied before resistance training was effective in gaining grip strength when compared to isolated PBM and isolated strength training after for weeks (Barbosa et al., 2017)
  • PBMT applied before and after sessions of aerobic training for 12 weeks can increase the time-to-exhaustion and oxygen uptake and also decrease the body fat in healthy volunteers when compared to placebo irradiation before and after exercise sessions. Our outcomes show that PBMT applied before and after endurance-training exercise sessions lead to improvement of endurance three times faster than exercise only (Miranda et al., 2018)
  • PBM therapy increases endurance and significantly improves biochemical markers such as: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, blood lactate, and oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. In other words, this modality can enhance performance and accelerate recovery (De Marchi et al., 2019)
  • More studies concluded that laser therapy increases time to exhaustion in competitive cyclists (Lanferdini, Bini, et al., 2018; Lanferdini, Krüger, et al., 2018)
  • It has been shown to significantly improve running economy, rate of perceived exertion, velocity at VO2 Max, and total time to exhaustion (Dellagrana et al., 2018)
  • In high-level rugby players, PBM has resulted in improved average time of sprints and fatigue index in a sprint test. It also resulted in a decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels and perceived fatigue. Conclusion: PBM can enhance performance and accelerate recovery (Pinto et al., 2016)
  • Even in postmenopausal women, PBM improves maximal performance and post-exercise recovery (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo et al., 2013)
  • Muscle torque at the beginning of an exercise and maintained levels of lactate after resistance exercise has been demonstrated from clinical application of PBM (dos Santos Maciel et al., 2014)
  • Conclusion: “Infrared-LED during treadmill training may improve quadriceps power and reduce peripheral fatigue in postmenopausal women” (F. R. Paolillo et al., 2014)
  • Clinical research demonstrated that LED can be used as a tool to increase muscle activity and to prevent fatigue (Kelencz et al., 2010)
  • In an identical twin study, compared with placebo, LED therapy increased the maximal load in exercise and reduced fatigue, creatine kinase, and visual analog scale. Gene expression analyses showed decreases in markers of inflammation (IL-1Beta) and muscle atrophy (myostatin) with LED therapy. Protein synthesis (mammalian target of rapamycin) and oxidative stress defense (SOD2 [mitochondrial superoxide dismutase]) were upregulated with LED therapy, together with increases in thigh muscle hypertrophy. In summary, Ferraresi et al. concluded LED therapy can be useful to reduce muscle damage, pain, and atrophy, as well as to increase muscle mass, recovery, and athletic performance in rehabilitation programs and sports medicine (Ferraresi et al., 2016)
  • PBM applied before eccentric training sessions improves hypertrophic response and muscular strength gain in healthy subjects (Baroni et al., 2015)
  • “Pre-exercise phototherapy with combination of low-level laser and LEDs, mainly with 30 J dose, significantly increases performance, decreases DOMS, and improves biochemical marker related to skeletal muscle damage.” (Antonialli et al., 2014)
  • In a smaller group of subjects, a single LED therapy intervention immediately attenuated muscle soreness and muscle strength loss and range of motion impairments (Borges et al., 2014)
  • Another small group of subjects (postmenopausal women) demonstrated that infrared-LED illumination associated with treadmill training can improve muscle power and delay leg fatigue (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Milan, et al., 2011)
  • One article from 2016 looked at Return-to-Play in college athletes and found that those who utilized PBM had significantly reduced time to Return-to-Play after a wide range of injuries (Foley et al., 2016)
  • A systematic review from 2015 presents 3 articles that showed that the use of low-level laser therapy, compared to placebo, is effective in treatment of tendinopathy. (Nogueira & Júnior, 2015)
  • “Low-level laser therapy, with the parameters used in this study, accelerates clinical recovery from chronic Achilles tendinopathy when added to an EE regimen. For the LLLT group, the results at 4 weeks were similar to the placebo LLLT group results after 12 weeks.” (Stergioulas et al., 2008)
  • Following an ankle sprain, when compared to the PRICES intervention, PBM was shown to be significantly more effective in reducing edema and pain. (de Moraes Prianti et al., 2018)
  • Combined with standard treatment, fractionated irradiation photobiomodulation therapy has been shown to have favorable short-term effects on the recovery of patients with ankle sprains (Calin et al., 2019)




Fat Loss


  • Morning red light exposures can modulate leptin and ghrelin concentrations, which could have an impact on reducing hunger that accompanies sleep deprivation (Figueiro et al., 2012)
  • PBM can influence reduction of cellulite (Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Borghi-Silva, et al., 2011)
  • PBM reduces obesity-linked glucose intolerance, adipose tissue inflammation, and hepatic stress (Petersen et al., 2017)
  • “Conclusion: Low-level laser therapy achieved safe and significant girth loss sustained over repeated treatments and cumulative over 4 weeks of eight treatments. The girth loss from the waist gave clinically and statistically significant cosmetic improvement.” (Caruso-Davis et al., 2011)
  • Several articles support the theory that photobiomodulation can reduce overall circumference measurements of specifically treated regions. (Jackson et al., 2009; McRae & Boris, 2013)
  • The results of a 2015 study demonstrated for the first time that phototherapy enhances the physical exercise effects in obese women undergoing weight loss treatment promoting significant changes in inflexibility metabolic profile (Sene-Fiorese et al., 2015)
  • PBM in association with exercise, has been shown to be an effective tool in the control of obesity and it’s comorbidities for obese individuals (da Silveira Campos et al., 2018; Duarte et al., 2015)




Eye Health


  • 670-nm light exposure reduces age-related retinal inflammation (Kokkinopoulos et al., 2013)
  • PBM has been shown to be a novel long-lasting therapeutic option for age-related macular degeneration. It was shown to increase ATP and reduce inflammation (Calaza et al., 2015)
  • We’ll let the title of this one speak for itself, “Aging retinal function is improved by near infrared light that is associated with corrected mitochondrial decline.” (Sivapathasuntharam et al., 2017)
  • A dissertation from the University of Wisconsin concluded that by exploiting, the cells own mechanism of self-repair, PBM has the potential for translating into clinical practice as an innovative, non-invasive stand-alone or adjunct therapy for the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases. (Gopalakrishnan, 2012)
  • This study provides proof of principle for the non-invasive use of red-light therapy to attenuate any dysfunctions associated with the corneal endothelium and so preserve maximum visual acuity. (Núñez-Álvarez et al., 2017)
  • Red-light therapy enhances retinal ganglion cell mitochondrial function and has the advantage of being both non-toxic and non-invasive (Beirne et al., 2016; Osborne et al., 2016; So et al., 2014; Szymanski et al., 2013)
  • Near infrared light has been shown to restore normal vision following a traumatic injury (Fitzgerald et al., 2010)
  • Low-level laser has been shown to reduce healing time of the cornea when compared to not intervention (M.d et al., 2011)




Male Infertility


  • A few different research articles show that light therapy can increase sperm motility (Ban Frangez et al., 2015; Preece et al., 2017; Salman Yazdi et al., 2014)
  • Light therapy exposure on rats stimulates sperm production (Biswas et al., 2013)
  • Laser therapy of patients with prostatitis and vesiculitis can improve reproductive and copulatory functions (Vladimirovich Moskvin & Ivanovich Apolikhin, 2018)




Alzheimer's & Dementia


  • PBM has recently been shown to noninvasively revers age-associated cognitive decline in mice (Zhang et al., 2019)
  • One of the first double-blind, placebo-controlled human trials on dementia/AD and red light therapy were published in 2017, with extremely positive findings. The data showed red light therapy treatments produced positive changes in executive function, clock drawing, immediate recall, memory, visual attention, and task switching, as well as “a trend of improved EEG amplitude and connectivity measures.”(Berman et al., 2017)
  • Increased function, better sleep, fewer angry outbursts, less anxiety, and wandering were reported post-PBM. There were no negative side effects. This is the first completed PBM case series to report significant, cognitive improvement in mild to moderately severe dementia and possible AD cases (Saltmarche et al., 2017)
  • In 2015, one month of near infrared light treatment mitigated the deposition of β-amyloid in cerebellar cortex of APP/PS1 mice, and the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, the hyperphosphorylation of tau, the damage caused by oxidative stress and the downregulation of cytochrome oxidase expression by Purkinje cells in the cerebellar cortex of K3 tau transgenic mice. These findings show the ability of near infrared light to mitigate degeneration in many - probably all - regions of the mouse brain (Purushothuman et al., 2015)
  • Another study from 2017 provides evidence that near infrared light can effectively reduce synaptic vulnerability to damaging amyloid-β oligomers, thus furthering near infrared light therapy as a viable treatment for AD (Comerota et al., 2017)
  • The use of PBM significantly reduced the presence of amyloid-β plaques and improved spatial memory and behavioral and motor skills in treated animals on day 21 (da Luz Eltchechem et al., 2017)
  • This study concludes, “By alleviating a broad spectrum of Aβ-induced pathology that includes mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and tau pathology in rats, LLI could represent a new promising therapeutic strategy for AD (Lu et al., 2017)




Thyroid Function


  • In patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, low-level laser therapy has been effective at improving thyroid function, promoting reduced TPOAb-mediated autoimmunity and increasing thyroid echogenicity (Höfling et al., 2013)
  • In a study that looked at irradiated thyroid glands in rats, it was found that PBM can improve thyroid function, as well as liver function and antioxidant levels (Morcos et al., 2015)
  • The results of an article from 2018 showed that the application of laser and levothyroxine synchronously improves the biomechanical parameters of wound during healing in comparison to the use of laser and levothyroxine solely (Firouzi et al., 2018)




Stroke Recovery


  • The application of low-level laser therapy may contribute to increased recruitment of muscle fibers and, hence, to increase the onset time of the spastic muscle fatigue, reducing pain intensity in stroke patients with spasticity, as has been observed in healthy subjects and athletes (das Neves et al., 2016; dos Reis et al., 2015)
  • “PBM is a promising medical treatment for the attenuation of CVA-related spasticity of the triceps surae muscle spasticity, and facilitate voluntary movements in such patients” (Ushigome et al., 2008)




Bone Injuries & Osteoporosis


  • One of the first human trials to be completed and published, in 2014, assessed 50 patients with closed bone fractures in their wrist or hand. Some of these patients received red light therapy treatments at the site of their injuries, while others received a placebo treatment. The red light therapy group “exhibited significant changes in all of the parameters,” while the placebo group did not. Improvements in the red light therapy group included:
    • Reduced pain and discomfort from wrist and hand injuries
    • Enhanced hand and wrist function
    • Improved grip strength
    • X-ray imaging demonstrated noticeable improvements (Chang et al., 2014)
  • A placebo-controlled trial published in 2017 analyzed red light therapy’s effectiveness for healing facial fractures and edema in 40 patients. Compared to the placebo group, the people whose faces were treated with red light therapy saw nearly double the reduction in swelling (Baek et al., 2017)
  • Concentrated natural light stimulates the mitochondria in your cells, reducing oxidative stress, and helping your body produce more usable energy to power itself, regenerate, and heal. Laboratory research has demonstrated better microvascular circulation in models treated with near infrared light (Brassolatti et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006)
  • Several studies have also clearly shown that models treated with natural light produce significantly more osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and osteocytes (advance osteoblasts that have become embedded in their own bone matrix) (Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006; Tschon et al., 2015)
  • Multiple studies show that PBM treatments increase natural (endogenous) collagen production (Brassolatti et al., 2018; Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006; Tschon et al., 2015)
  • In 2012, researchers published a meta-analysis of 13 in vitro studies and 12 animal studies concerning red light therapy and bone health. They found that 11 of 13 in vitro studies showed a significant increase in cell proliferation with light treatments. They also found that all 12 animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites treated with light therapy. The team concluded that red light therapy can “accelerate bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects, and distraction osteogenesis.” (Ebrahimi et al., 2012)
  • A separate team, analyzing red light therapy and bone healing in animal studies, found that treatments can “enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models.” Researchers also noted that maximum bone tolerance, a measure of overall strength, was increased with red light therapy across several studies (Bashardoust Tajali et al., 2010)
  • In 2015, researchers analyzed red light therapy’s effectiveness at healing tibia fractures in a lab rodent model. Using radiologic and histopathologic analysis, they found that rats treated with red light therapy experienced much faster rates of tibia fracture healing (Briteño-Vázquez et al., 2015)
  • Another study performed on rats found that the healed tibias treated with red light showed greater stiffness and maximum endurance before breakage (Luger et al., 1998)
  • A 2017 study analyzed age-related rat osteoporosis treated with red light. Researchers found the treatments can “effectively improve osteoporosis, increase bone mineral density, improve bone structure, and improve bone biomechanical properties in old rats (Zhu et al., 2017)
  • A separate 2016 study showed red light therapy can preserve vertebrae strength against detrimental effects of osteoporosis in rats, and increase the stress load of bones with osteoporosis (Bayat et al., 2016)
  • After examining ninety rats that received bone grafts, researchers in a 2018 study concluded that the animals treated with red light therapy saw improved graft potential, and even improved bone formation in ungrafted areas (de Oliveira et al., 2018)




Sleep & Circadian Rhythm


  • A 2018 article compared the effects of Botox treatment to low-level laser therapy (LLLT) for migraines. Their data showed that both treatments can be used to treat chronic migraine, reduce headaches, and decrease the intensity of pain. Additionally, the LLLT group experienced less sleep disturbance (Loeb et al., 2018)
  • A pilot study on 11 chronic, mTBI participants concluded shining red/near-infrared LEDs on patients’ scalp increases their ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. The participants also reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (Naeser et al., 2014)
  • A 14-day whole-body irradiation with red-light treatment improved the sleep, serum melatonin level, and endurance performance of elite female basketball players (Zhao et al., 2012)
  • When comparing sleep quality after exposure to bright light of different colors, a lower temperature color (like the JOOVV) was found to have less suppressive effects on drop in core body temperature and melatonin secretion (Morita & Tokura, 1996)
  • A 2015 article provides a rationale for applying PBM therapy to treat mTBI. Their reasoning: increased cerebral ATP production and blood flow, antioxidant effects, increase in heat-shock protein 70, potential increase in neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, and improvements in cognition, PTSD, and sleep (Naeser & Hamblin, 2015)




Bone Healing


  • A literature review of 68 in vitro and animal-study articles from 1992 to 2012 reported that PBM has significant effects on wound healing. It decreases the number of inflammatory cells, increases fibroblast proliferation, stimulates angiogenesis, forms granulation tissue and increases synthesis of collagen (Chaves et al., 2014)
  • It was determined in a systematic review that PBM promoted bone reformation, an increase in collagen synthesis, and a contribution to microvascular reestablishment.(Brassolatti et al., 2018)
  • A series of papers found that infrared wavelengths increase osteoblastic proliferation, collagen deposition, and bone neoformation when compared to nonirradiated bone (Heo et al., 2018; Pinheiro & Gerbi, 2006)
  • PBM promotes wound healing mainly through stimulation of cell migration and collagen deposition by osteoblasts, as demonstrated by an in vitro model (Tschon et al., 2015)




Skin Rejuvination


  • “The photons are absorbed by mitochondrial chromophores in skin cells. Consequently, electron transport, adenosine triphosphate nitric oxide release, blood flow, reactive oxygen species increase, and diverse signaling pathways are activated. Stem cells can be activated, allowing increased tissue repair and healing. In dermatology, LLLT has beneficial effects on wrinkles, acne scars, hypertrophic scars, and healing of burns. LLLT can reduce UV damage both as a treatment and as a prophylactic measure. In pigmentary disorders such as vitiligo, LLLT can increase pigmentation by stimulating melanocyte proliferation and reduce depigmentation by inhibiting autoimmunity. Inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis and acne can also be managed. The noninvasive nature and almost complete absence of side effects encourage further testing in dermatology.” (Avci et al., 2013)
  • A 2014 controlled trial showed that participants subject to PBM therapy experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control (Wunsch & Matuschka, 2014)
  • Another experiment demonstrated that improvements in skin appearance (decrease in wrinkling and roughness) observed in LED-treated individuals can be explained by reversed collagen downregulation and MMP-1 upregulation (Barolet et al., 2009)
  • Even a smaller version of the JOOVV, with red and near-infrared LED therapy delivered from a portable handheld unit represents an effective and acceptable method of photo rejuvenation. 74 participants in this study reported a visible improvement in fine lines and wrinkles at 8 weeks posttreatment (Sadick, 2008)
  • Treatment of the under eye area result in significantly less wrinkling (H.-K. Kim & Choi, 2017)
  • Of participants in a small study, 91% reported improved skin tone and 82% reported enhanced smoothness (Baez & Reilly, 2007)
  • Recently, in 2018 children with post-burn scars had half of their scars treated with a topical medicine, whereas, the other half was treated with topical medicine plus laser therapy. There was significant improvement in the half of the scar that received laser therapy (Alsharnoubi et al., 2018)
  • Fifteen women suffering from moderate acne vulgaris of the face showed how red light therapy can be an effective, well-tolerated, safe, simple and inexpensive treatment option (Zane et al., 2008)
  • LED light therapy in conjunction with tacrolimus improves skin lesions/atopic dermatitis (C.-H. Kim et al., 2013)
  • A couple other studies show improvements in atopic dermatitis, as well (Jekal et al., 2017; C.-H. Kim et al., 2016)





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